Attention is important to keep your dog focused and thinking.
When your dog is experiencing fear and/or reacting, they are in a high state of arousal. They are in flight or fight mode and their body is full of adrenaline. During this time, it is impossible for learning to happen and their focus will be directed towards whatever is causing this stress. This is not the time to work the dog as they are in an emotional state. We must first get them thinking and then work from there. To do this, we begin with the auto watch. When we get our dogs focused on us, we trigger the cognitive part of their brain and learning can begin to happen. It slows the dog down and enables us to have much more success in training!
Teaching the Auto Watch
1. Your dog should understand 'yes' and offered attention.
2. Have a handful of small treats and step down on your dog's leash.
3. When they look away (ex: at another dog), say 'yes'. Your dog should hear the yes and look back to you in anticipation for their reward. When they do, offer them a treat. If they do not, you are too close or may need to just wait them out.
4. Repeat this 5-10 times until your dog is quickly looking back to you when they hear 'yes'.
5. Now wait for your dog to look back to you before saying the 'yes'. Once they do, say 'yes' and reward. This is the auto watch; look to the distraction, but look back to me.
Be aware of your dog's focus and excitement levels. If they are moving around, use your food to lure them back to place or just ask them to sit. You must stay still and not react to their excitement levels. Do not just practice this with other dogs, but with anything that gets your dog's attention away from you.
Your dog's focus may be on the food and they may go into food brain. If this happens, keep the food out of sight. Do the universal 'nothing in my hands' gesture to your dog. Look down at the item and watch in your peripheral for your dog to look away.
You want your dog really thinking about what they are looking at. As the dog begins to understand the auto watch, ensure they really observe the other dog. Be aware of the dog doing this in fast repetition as it may cause their arousal levels to increase. Keep them calm and do this by ensuring you are also maintaining slow movements. Keep praise calm and deliver treats slowly.
Your dog can learn to quietly watch the world out the window
Now that you and your dog understand auto watch, the emergency u-turn and stepping down on the leash, how do you put it all together? You must start all of these skills in a controlled setting (at home and in the classroom) and now it's time to take them out into the real world and apply them in those settings. As you introduce the skills, it is ok to avoid your dog's triggers outside (people, dogs, rabbits, etc), but now you must begin to expose them to these items. Review our posts on Prevention and Management and Proactive vs Reactive to understand how to best set these up.
Outside on a Walk
Remember to be in the right environment for your dog and use your emergency u-turn if the situation is too much for your dog!
1. Have your dog in a sit and step down on their leash.
2. Practice the auto watch.
3. Remember the 3 steps (yes, if they do not respond, then lure them to you, if they do not respond, then drop the treats). If that does not work, you are too close and need to increase distance!
Practice this as often as possible and in short, positive sessions. Do not always practice just with your dog's triggers. To make it reliable, practice it with anything that gets your dog's attention! Remember to also reward all offered attention! Be aware of the leash tension and your voice, breathing and excitement. Stay calm and ensure you have a confident posture! Remember that some sessions will be better than others, so do not get discouraged when your dog has a reaction. Expect them, learn from them and remember all of your other success!
Reacting at Windows or in the Yard
This is normal, and part of your dog's job for us, however, we want to ensure we can easily interrupt it and that is an alert bark versus a situation where your dog is practicing the behaviour. This is also a self-rewarding behaviour! Your dog barks, and they keep walking, so in your dog's mind they have just done an excellent job at scaring the intruder away! The key is prevention and management. If your dog is barking at the window, block access or put up window film so they cannot see out (you can get removable window film at most home hardware stores). For dogs that bark outside, you can create a dog run area, put up snow fencing to block access to a fence where they can see traffic going by or ensure it is only used for bathroom breaks; do not leave your dog unsupervised outside for long periods. You cannot allow them to practice the behaviour, so you must disable their ability to react when you are not there or do not have the time to work on it.
1. When your dog does bark, call them to you and give them big rewards when they come! This may take a long time to start, so just continue to cheer them on. Do not go to them!
2. Have them sit and remain with you until you release them (using an 'all done' or similar cue).
3. If they get too excited with this exercise, keep your praise calm, but offer multiple small treats to make it rewarding for them.
4. Be consistent and practice, practice, practice!
As you practice this, your dog will begin to let out a small bark but come running to you for rewards. Ensure you keep the rewards big until the dog consistently runs to you versus reacting out a window or in the yard.
Reacting in the Vehicle
If your dog reacts at people or dogs in the vehicle, you can try to confine them to a crate so that they cannot see the outside environment. If that is not possible, limit travel time while you set this up.
1. For people, set up sessions where people approach your vehicle and offer your dog food. To start, have yourself and familiar people do this and reward calm behaviour. When moving to strangers, you may need to deliver the food at first.
2. For dogs, set up sessions with other dogs approaching the vehicle and work on the auto watch with your dog.
3. For when you are driving, do not react to your dog's reactions. You could try having someone in the back to work on attention with your dog and the auto watch while you go by distractions. Or, have some treats in the front with you and throw them back to your dog to find while you drive by the trigger. This prevents the behaviour from happening, and in turn, creates a positive when these things comes into sight!
As always, prevention and management is the key, setting your dog up for success and set up the training sessions versus waiting for the situation to arise when we are not prepared to do the training!
Keep both you and your dog happier by setting up for success!
If you struggle with your dog reacting too often out on walks or find each venture outside too stressful, you are being reactive vs proactive with your training. Please review our post on Prevention and Management to understand how important this is when we are working through a treatment plan for our fearful/reactive dogs. We must understand how to set our dog up for success and become proactive in our training! This not only allows your dog to progress through the program faster, but also makes it much more enjoyable for yourself and your dog!
Go to the Right Environment
As we discussed, you need to go to a space that sets your dog up for success. This may be in open on-leash parks, green spaces or just wide roads in our community. It may also be certain times of the day. Mid-day we are less likely to see as many dogs, and we should avoid pick up and drop off times for schools as there are likely to be a lot of kids out and the environment will be busier which will make it more challenging for your dog.
Set Up the Training
Don't just take your dog out for walks and wait for the dogs, or people or bikes to appear. Take them out to places where you can set it up. For example, if my dog reacts to bikes, I will take them to a place near a bike path, but with enough space that I can keep my dog at a distance where they will not react. If your dog struggles with people, recruit friends and family to set it up. If you find it hard to find dogs, go to a vet clinic, dog daycare or pet store and work with your dog in the parking lot while dogs go in or out. There are always ways to set up the training, so get out with your dog and do this!
Always be working on attention with your dog. Watch their arousal levels and keep their pace slower. If your dog is already out in front and ignoring you, you will have minimal success at getting them back to you if one of their triggers comes into their sight. If you do see something approaching and can give your dog adequate space, move to that spot, step down on your dog's leash and begin working on the auto watch right away. Do not wait for your dog to react to set this up. And if you struggle with loose leash walking with your dog, purchase an anti-pull harness from us right away. This will calm your dog and improve their attention, which is a key part to the success of the Reactive urbanK9 program!
If you find every walk stressful and struggle taking your dog out, then you are not in the right spot. Take your dog somewhere with more space. Keep your sessions short and build off the positives. Running to the grocery store or the bank? If the weather is good, why not bring your dog with you and do a short training session before and after you go in?
You have a reactive dog, so you will have situations arise that are too much and they may explode! Things also do not just continue to get better, so it is normal to have set backs. The key is to learn from them, understand what trigger caused your dog to react and figure out how to set up that situation better next time. Laugh it off with your dog and sit down for some quiet time. Be proud that you are out with your dog and know that you now have the knowledge and tools to keep them moving forward!
Teach your dog to wait patiently to develop good self control
We have discussed the importance of calming our reactive dogs and the effects of stress on them. Self control is a critical part of modifying reactive behaviour in dogs as many of them do not handle their emotions well and frustrate easily. Working through self control concerns allows us to be working on the foundation of their arousal levels to enable them to better settle themselves when they see other dogs or triggers that cause a reactive response. As we see their self control improve, we will also begin to see their threshold increase and make great progress in resolving their reactivity concerns.
So what exactly is self control? It is defined as the ability to control oneself, in particular one's emotions and desires or the expression of them in one's behaviour, especially in difficult situations. For our dogs, this translates as calm, focused behaviour in situations that may typically elicit reactive or over-the-top excited responses. The more we assist our dog at being calm and learning patience, the better response we will receive from them during these excitable times.
Self control is an easy skill to teach and build into everyday life. The key is to teach your dog that in order to receive anything and everything they perceive as a positive, they must offer calm behaviour. This could be a sit with attention, or just standing calmly.
You can teach this with everything your dog perceives as a positive such as your attention, a toy, their dinner, getting their leash on, getting to go out the door, saying hello to a person, going to explore a new scent and so much more! Each and every time your dog wants to gain access to the rewards, simply wait for calm behaviour before providing them access to them!
For example, your dog gets really excited with a ball by barking and jumping when they see it in your hand. Simply wait for them to stand on all four paws calmly, or sit, and when they do, say 'yes' and throw the ball. Or, let's say your dog gets really excited and runs around when they see you take out their leash. Simply sit and wait for your dog to settle. You may even cue them to down, but as you approach, if they get up, stop your approach and wait for them to settle. Once they calm, you can say 'yes' and release them to put on their harness.
This truly is an easy skill to train throughout every day and should just become a habit for us. Every time we see too much excitement or arousal levels get too high, we simply wait for the calm behaviour and reward that!
Teach your dog to be calm when the doorbell rings
Most dog owners dread the chaos that ensues when the doorbell rings, but this can be especially stressful when you live with a fearful and/or reactive dog. Having people over may be so stressful that we avoid this entirely, or when it does happen your dog may embarrass you with their reactive behaviour or not even allow your guest to move within your house! It can be a stressful and discouraging situation, but the below information outlines how to set it up to have a successful visit and teach your dog a better response for when that doorbell rings!
To begin, let's go through the steps for when family members come home and how to deal with your dog's excitement levels. We must teach them that hellos are calm and that sit and calm behaviour is what gets them attention. This is a critical step because as always with our fearful/reactive dog, we must work on calm behaviours first to ensure we keep arousal levels low.
Excitement with Greetings
1. When your dog jumps up, you should turn away and ignore them (say nothing and do not make eye contact). Ignore your dog and offer no attention until it keeps all four paws on the floor. Most dogs are rewarded by us for jumping up because we still give them attention; even if it is negative.
2. Wait for your dog to be on all four paws, and praise immediately while the dog is standing or even sitting. The reward is your attention, but keep your praise calm.
3. If your dog gets too excited and jumps again, just turn away again, and wait for them to put all four paws on the ground.
4. If your dog decides to continue to jump at your back, leave the room. You only need to be out of the room for 5-10 seconds, and there needs to be a door between you and your dog.
5. Return to your dog and follow the above steps.
6. Continue repeating this exercise until your dog no longer jumps. You can set this exercise up by coming home (entering through the front door) often.
7. Another option for this exercise is to enforce sit when you come home. Have a treat ready in your hand and ask your dog to sit. This way your dog is working for you and earning your attention.
8. Practice this often and set it up! Work with everyone your dog is comfortable and gets excited to see.
A great option to this is to enter your house and completely ignore the dog (no eye contact or anything). To do this, you may need to do something to keep your attention off your dog such as going on your computer, reading the mail, etc. Initially this may take quite a while, but once your dog settles and lies down, you can then say a big hello. We are teaching the dog that they will only get attention when they are calm. Be consistent with this and teach your dog that hellos and goodbyes are calm as it is important to help manage the arousal levels of your dog.
Changing the Doorbell Association
We are going to change what the doorbell means to your dog. We will be teaching them that when they hear the doorbell, they should go to their kennel or behind a gate. We are removing the dog from the situation, which is necessary for our fearful/reactive dogs. This keeps them out of all of the excitement, allows us to greet our guests and set up for a successful introduction. This is part of us being proactive versus reactive with our dogs as we are always aiming to set them up for success. To train this, follow the below steps:
1. Ring the doorbell (your dog can see you do this as they are likely to still react).
2. Cue the dog to go to their kennel or behind their gate and lure them to their spot. Do not physically pull them, but lure them. Drop treats on the ground, if needed, to keep them moving. It may take a while at first, but with practice, it will quickly speed up! *Note: your dog must be kennel trained or comfortable behind a gate. If not, please read our post on Alone Training.
3. Toss the treats in the kennel or behind the gate, and close the door/gate behind them.
4. Walk away and wait for your dog to settle. Stay out of sight and ignore all barking or whining.
5. Once your dog settles, walk back to them (turn and walk away if they begin to bark/whine again). Let the dog out and completely ignore them and go about your business. We want to teach them that coming out is no big deal. The good stuff happens behind the gate and we want them coming out in a calm manner.
6. Repeat until your dog happily goes behind the gate/into their kennel and is calm. Expect that you will always have some initial barking, but the dog should quickly go to their spot when they hear the doorbell versus running to the door.
7. Repeat all of the above with family members or people your dog knows and is comfortable with coming to the front door and ringing the doorbell. Have family members do this every time they come home and set this up with friends/family who your dog knows and is comfortable with. Ensure the also follow the above Excitement with Greetings steps.
8. Repeat, Repeat, Repeat!
Strangers Coming to the House
After your dog is now moving away from the door, it is time to start working with strangers coming into the house. Follow the below steps to set up a successful interaction with new people coming into the house and begin to teach your dog that strangers are well-behaved treat dispensers versus something scary!
1. Follow steps 1-4 under Changing the Doorbell Association
2. Greet your guests and bring them into the house. Take your time and get them seated.
3. Review the key points with them (treats in hand, no eye contact, no fast movements and stay seated).
4. Bring your dog out and have a trail of treats going to your guests to keep their approach slow.
5. Keep the session short and positive and do not push your dog. In the beginning, end the session and put your dog back in their spot to avoid any set backs. Bring them out as often as possible for short sessions.
6. Work through the steps outlined in Handling for Your Fearful Dog blog post. Ensure your guests always have food on them and coach them on how to respond if your dog reacts: toss treats, stop movement and do not respond.
7. Continue working to standing, moving around the house, etc. As you progress, you can begin to have your dog out when people come through the door. Keep sessions short and know that you may make mistakes. Learn from them and set it up differently for them moving forward.
8. Repeat, repeat, repeat! The more sessions, the better. Have friends for drinks, dinner, etc. and use those that will listen well to start, and build up to the more excitable or scary ones for your dog.
Always remember to keep things calm and monitor the situation with your dog. If your dog has a bite history with people, work with your trainer first to ensure you are setting this up safely. If your dog reacts, remember you have pushed them and do not get angry. Teach them their spot is a safe and positive place to be as this becomes an important management tool for our fearful/reactive dogs!
Our own behaviour affects the quality of the time spent with our dogs
We have discussed how to make our dogs calmly accept handling and to enjoy it, but what about how we handle them? Let's face it: we can be jerks when we have our dogs on leash through yanking or keeping constant tension on the leash, and we can be very reactive as well! We often begin to anticipate that our dogs will react in certain situations, so we begin to react. This may be through pulling up on the leash, we may raise our shoulders with tension, we may begin breathing fast (or stop breathing!) or any type of response from being anxious. This all travels down the leash to our dogs and indicates something bad is about to happen. We easily influence our dog's behaviour and with fearful or reactive dogs, it's more often than not, for the worse.
However we want our dog's to behave, we must behave that way. This means, if we don't want tension on the leash, we don't put tension on the leash! If we want them to be calm, we must be calm! If we want them to be confident, we must be confident! We understand that this is much easier said than done, so the below information outlines some key tips to help you better behave for your dog.
Step Down on that Leash
During the Foundations level of the Reactive urbanK9 program, your dog will need to be stationary to enable better success at them focusing. To do this, we are going to step down on their leash and lure them into a sit. If they respond to the sit cue, that's perfect! But remember, their focus will be the other dog, so they may not respond well to cues.
We have you step down on the leash for a couple of reasons. The first one, is to take you off the other end of the leash. It is challenging and emotional to have a reactive dog, so we understand how stressful and frustrating this can be. As you work through the program, and your dog progresses, so will your confidence and this will help you to relax. For right now, step down on the leash and minimize the influence your behaviour as on your dog. The other reason is to prevent a game of tug of war on the leash! It is hard not to pull back on the leash when our dog is lunging or trying to pull towards the other dog. So, to prevent escalating the situation, stepping down the leash stops this from happening.
Remember to not have tension on the leash when you are stepping down. If the leash is tense, loosen it up slightly. Always, always, always hold on to the other end of the leash! If your leash is not long enough, you need to get another one that you can hold onto the other end while stepping down. And stay still. We can go into a fool around mode as well, and this includes us moving around and waving our hands. Stay standing and use your treat to lure your dog into position. When you move around you excite your dog and they will lose their focus, so stay still and keep your hand movements slow!
This is used for when you are walking and see something that will be too hard for your dog up ahead and that you cannot avoid if you continue moving forward. You know that you cannot create more space and practice the auto watch, so just need to avoid the situation. Remember that you are protecting the training and managing the environment to limit the reactive responses from your dog, so you just need to turn around and avoid what's ahead. This is an important one to remember and we will introduce it to our dogs so they happily change direction now.
Up to this point, you have probably cued this already by saying something like, 'uh oh' or your favourite four letter word! And what this has likely become is just a cue to your dog that something scary is ahead! They hear it and hit the end of the leash in alert mode ready to react! To start, think of a cue that your dog does not already associate with this. It can be something simple as 'this way' or 'u-turn'. We have even had people say funny things like 'whoopie!' or 'yee haw' to prevent the panic and have fun with this cue. It is up to you, but ensure you give it a name and cue it before you turn around to avoid any scary situation up ahead!
Start by introducing the cue when nothing is going on. Say your cue such as 'this way', bend your knees as you turn with a lure for your dog and encourage them to turn with you. Stay upbeat and have fun, and give your dog big rewards when they follow you! Turn this into a fun game and your dog will happily turn to follow you vs anticipating something scary up ahead and turning their focus to the dog or whatever it may be they will react to ahead.
Be aware of your touch and how it influences your dog. We often act out of frustration and try to physically move our dogs; even if it is as simple as pushing on their bum to get them to sit. Or we yank on their leash to move them into position. Or, we may even yank on their collar in an attempt to get them to stop reacting. All of this escalates the situation and you are worsening the reaction. And what's even worse, you are damaging the relationship with your dog and will create challenges with their focus on you.
The most important step for this training to be successful: keep your hands off! Use the food to lure your dog into position, step down on the leash or create more space. We understand it is frustrating to deal with reactivity, but now you know how to handle the situation and how to set them up for success. Keeping our hands off our dogs, not physically manipulating them, rewarding offered behaviour and allowing them to problem solve creates reliable and long lasting behaviour. And not only that, you and your dog will enjoy the training and be happy to do it! You will even begin seeking out the same situations that you were once trying to avoid!
Use your touch in a positive way. Slowly stroke your dog and gently rub his chest. Take down time on your walks, and try this after stressful events. Watch how powerful this is at calming both of you. This is such a wonderful way to have a quiet bonding experience. Get out of the habit of using your hands when you are frustrated. Use your touch to settle your dog and experience the joy of the calming effect it can have.
Make an active effort to stay calm and breathe on your walks. Take deep breaths and be aware of tension. Maintain a slower pace and just enjoy your time with your dog. Ensure you take your dog out to environments where you can easily see what's around you and you have enough space to move away, if needed. Give your dog time to sniff and just be a dog. Take breaks and let them just watch the world. We get so caught up in the busy lifestyle, our walks tend to be fast and go, go, go! Try to take time to enjoy your time together, and if a dog does come into sight, know you have enough distance to successfully practice your dog's focus.
If you have had a stressful day and are already tired, go somewhere with lots of space and where you are unlikely to run into any dogs or people! Just enjoy a nice walk and know that you do not need to do training walks every day. It is important that your dog is working and seeing other dogs, but there are times when we are better to have a stress-free walk or no walk at all versus one full of reactivity. When we are frustrated or stressed, we forget what we have learned and create a stressful situation for our dog which often results in increased reactivity from them. Take your time and be patient with both of you, and just breathe.
Learn the correct way to gain trust from a fearful dogs
If your dog is fearful of people, then teaching it to calmly accept, and even enjoy touch, can be a challenge. It may even seem impossible at this point! But, with the right steps, building their confidence and understanding your dog's body language, you can create a dog that seeks out touch - even from strangers!
To start, please read The dogma of Handling to learn about the importance of teaching this to your dog and the introduction steps for you to work on with handling your dog. If they are unsure or fussy about handling from you, then do not expect them to be comfortable with a stranger touching them.
When working on handling with a fearful dog, you always start where they are most comfortable and build from there. Be patient with this and understand that you cannot push your dog. If you push them, you may traumatize them and make their fears even worse. Follow the handling steps but keep the below considerations in mind.
As you go through these steps on your own, you will begin to work with familiar people and then strangers. Keep yourself calm and ensure everyone involved in calm. Reward all appropriate behaviour and if your dog does react or flee, simply step back and use the food to get them settled again. The world is a scary place for our fearful dogs, so it is our job to ensure we expose them to it and work them through these fears. Do not use their behaviour or past experiences as an excuse. Work with your trainer to set these training situations correctly and enjoy the rewards of watching your dog's confidence build! Socialize them to the world as you would a new puppy! Get them out and teach them the world means good things - they will thank you for it and be forever grateful!